Preface -People who live in complete isolation have many disadvantages but there is also an advantage ,their culture remains untouched and exotic .The culture is not only about song and dance but also about their food ,crops, medicine ,books etc. That is the main purpose to showcase through this platform which is Vanaj, one of it's own kind, the 1st ever truly National Tribal Festival.
1.Kaayang Dance of Kinnaur: This dance form reflects the culture and tradition of Himachal.This dance form,from the kinnaur and near by areas are redolent of the historic period.Its rhythm combines both slow and fast.
2.Sehnai Vaadan of Himachal
3.Mushada Gaayan of Himachal
4.Chamba Folk Song:
Assam : Dance and Musical Performance by tribes
"GUMRAG" Dance of Mising tribe .
The Mising tribe are second largest tribe inhabiting the areas north of the mighty Brahmaputra river in Upper Assam. They are also known as Miris, but they call themselves as "Mising". GUMRAG is one of the most important dances of the Misings which is performed in 'Ali Aye ligang' festival. Ali Aye Ligang is the main festival of this tribe , celebrated on the first Wednesday of Phagun month (Hindu calendar year which is before onset of monsoon). The derivative meaning of Ali Aye Ligang means "Ali( roots)- Aye( fruits)-Ligang ( festival ) which means the beginning of seed sowing. They begin with symbolic sowing of seed on this very day with prayers and dance. The GUMRAG dance is performed to appease the goddess of fertility who is the caretaker of their treasury. This dance is highlighted by rhythmic beating of the DUMDUM (a kind of drum), LE:LONG –MARBUNG (Metalic bell), LU:PI, JEGERE TAPUNG (Buffalo horn pipe), TU:TOG TAPUNG (flute) and graceful movements of hand and feet imitating the movements of the green paddy leaves at different stages of its growth. The eternal circle of days and nights and the repetition of spring after a winter are depicted by moving in a circle.
Borat dance is a traditional dance of Tiwa tribe of Assam. This dance is performed during the Borat Festival which is celebrated in Pausa ( 5 December – 15 January ) month during full moon. The dance is performed after lightening of 360 earthern lamps. Youth from different villages gather and assemble birds carved out of wood and bamboo that are fixed to a long bamboo or reed. While singing songs of 'Barat', the rope is pulled to make the birds dance atop the poles. It is a dance of joy and merriment. The dance is performed along with accompanied of songs locally known as " Gadali puriya geet" The musical instruments are pepa bahi,Tall jur,Pati dhul etc.
"Kham/Karha /Lakhor Brangchi" of Rabha Tribe: The important instrument of tribe is the Kham or Hem. Kham is a type of instrument called 'Obonardhr' which suggest that Kham has been made of animal skin. This instrument is used in Rabha Folk Dances.
'Karha' is a flute of 7-8 feet in length which contain only one hole. The Rabha tribe believe this flute to be a gift of God or having some powerful aspects. Though this flute contain only one hole, but it produces the fifth level of the increasing harmony which is the most difficult of all notes in a flute. With the development of modern and technically high pitch instruments in the field of Art and Music, this Karha has also been projected immensely among other instruments.
'Lahor Brangchi' contains only two holes used by the Rabha tribe in their society earlier, mainly by the cow boy, who plays the flute at time of rearing the cows of villagers in the field and at the time of getting them in theirs sheds with beautiful rhythm and harmony.
Kum Li'eng of Karbi Tribe: 'Kum Li'eng' is a traditional musical instrument used by the Karbis. Kum is a generalized term for any stringed instrument. 'Kum' has two variants. The single stringed 'Kum' is called 'Kum Li'eng' while the two stringed varieties is called 'Kum Dengdong'. The term 'Li'eng' gives distinctive character to 'Kum Li'eng' because of the particular sound it produces. 'Kum Li'eng' may be called a one stringed violin or fiddle played with a bow. It is played with the neck held vertically and the sound box (usually a dried bottle gourd) kept on the ground or thigh. The bow is made of the bark of bamboo and the string is made out of the bark of a tree called 'Mengsuri'. It is played only by males. 'Kum Li'eng' is a versatile instrument which is played to produce a variety of sounds for entertainment, such as lullabies, love ballads and even traditional funeral laments. Often the instrument is used in divination.
Folk Song (Bong-oi Alun) of Karbi Tribe In the bygone days, love between boys and girls were expressed in a very delicate through beautiful song compositions. The 'Ove-Alun' or love songs were composed and sung while the boys and girls were working in shifting cultivation area. Sometimes, those songs took the form of a dialogue between boys and gilrs to exchange their views. Ove-Alun is known as 'Bong-oi Alun'. Some of the Bong-oi Alun are Bong-oi Mir tampe, Bong-oi Mir senglong, Bong-oi Mir lori, Bong-oi Mir vansam, Bong-oi Mir mavet, etc.
The Chhau dance is mainly performed during regional festivals, especially the spring festival of Chaitra Parva which lasts for thirteen days and in which the whole community participates. The Chhau blends within it forms of both dance and martial practices employing mock combat techniques (called khel), stylized gaits of birds and animals (called chalis and topkas) and movements based on the chores of village housewives (called uflis). The dance is performed by male dancers from families of traditional artists or from local communities and is performed at night in an open space, called akhada or asar, to traditional and folk music, played on the reed pipes mohuri and shehnai. A variety of drums accompany the music ensemble including the dhol (a cylindrical drum), dhumsa (a large kettle drum) and kharka or chad-chadi. The themes for these dances include local legends, folklore and episodes from the Ramayana and Mahabharata and other abstract themes.
The Chhau dance is mainly performed by the Munda, Mahato, Kalindi, Pattnaik, Samal, Daroga, Mohanty, Acharya, Bhol, Kar, Dubey, and Sahoo communities. The musical accompaniment for the dance is provided by people of communities known as Mukhis, Kalindis, Ghadheis and Dhadas who are also involved in the making of the instruments. Masks form an integral part of Chhau Dance in Purulia and Seraikella where the craft of mask-making is undertaken by communities of traditional painters known as Maharanas, Mohapatras and Sutradhars. The knowledge of dance, music and mask-making is transmitted orally.
There are five steps in Bagurumba dance.It is also known as Basanta Nritya or spring time dance.This very dance has been recognized and was awarded by National dance Academy of India. This is Bascically a Bodo dance.They speak Bodo Language staying in Jalpaiguri Darjeeling in the district of Alipurdwar of West Bengal.
This is a weapon dance generally performed by the women of Bodo Community.The theme of the very dance depicts that women are of great strength and they are no weaker than males.they are not even dependent on males for their livelihood.
Saarul dance: Sarhul Dance of Oran Tribe-
The Orans are not among the early inhabitants of the district.They are immigrants of Chhotanagpur Plateau.But as they settled here they assimilated the local culture with their own.Dance is an indispensable part of their social life.and occurs on any occasion. Besides on special occasions like Chaitra, Phagu jatra,Sarhul,Karama,Biha etc they often dance for their own enjoyment.Among all forms of dances Sarhul is the most colourful and vibrant dance form.In this dance form they dance with the beats of drum.Waving of the body from the waist and up,bending of the knees,stamping of the right foot backward and lifting the left foot forward and heap movement are some of the peculiar characteristics.
Tribal Folk Dance of Mayurbhanj-
A Folk art is the expression of the ethos of a community in music,dance or drama.Performence is its basic characteristic.it is an indivisible part of community life and culture.Community life manifests itself through Folk Art related to contemporary life are naturally inspiring.Traditionalism is their hallmark.
In classical dance the body movement and gestures are two important ingredient.folk is tribal dances enjoy enormous freedom and possibilities of innovation. When we talk of innovation Mayurbhanj Chhau is a unique example of of its kind.And mostly the Young generation are adapting this form. Lets witness the Tribal folk by santal and ho communities of mayurbhanj district.
Gotipua Dance of Konark Ashram School Students-
The Odissi tradition exists in three schools: Mahari,nartaki,and Gotipua.During 6th century Gotipua tradition was emerged because of Vaishavas dint approve of dancing by women folk.During this periodof Vaishavas poet composes enumerable lyrics in odiya dedicated to radha and Krishna.The actual form of dance is executed by a group of boys who perform acrobatic figure inspired by the life of radha and Krishna.The boys start tom lern dance as an early ageuntil the adolescence. The tribal students of Konark Ashram School district of puri have performed on this platform.
Odissi Dance by kondh's of Phiringia, Kondhmal-
Odissi also known as Orissi is one of the elite classical dance forms of india. It originates from Odisha and is the oldest surviving dance form of india.it is different from other classical dance forms present in india. The important characteristics are Trivangis……………………….Ahenila Shaila have been presented.
Title of the song Dung Dunga Bajuli" Dhemsa is a popular dance of Koraput in the state of Odisha, it is a folk dance performed by boys and girls.It is named after the traditional instrument Dhumash.This present dance is performed during Pausha Parab to welcome Mahalaxmi.In this song they have expressed their gratitude to mahalaxmi and invite all the people irrespective of caste,creed and reliogion and social status to join and dance.
Colourful tribe of Odisha ,the Gadabas mainly identify themselves for their unique Dhemsa dance and for Kerang sarees. The Dhemsa is ritual dance and generally performed during communal festivals like Dusshera , pusa purnima and Chaitra parav.Both men and women participate in dancing with the instruments like Dhol,tamak,khiridi and mahuri.
Jharkhand : Dance and Musical performance by tribes
A war dance or a ' Martial Art', "Firkaal" is performed on the day of Agahan Jatra, the day after Makar Sankranti in mid-January by the Bhumij tribes. The essence of the dance reflects their culture. The villagers first offer prayers to seek blessings from the Almighty so that no dancer suffers from any form of injury while performing the dance; as the ancient tradition goes, they would worship God before embarking for their livelihood, hunting.
Experts say Firkal is, in fact, a variation of Kirpan Susun ("Kirpan" means sword and "susun" dance), a traditional dance form among the Bhumij tribes of Chhotanagpur. The dance portrayals are mostly enactments of hunting scenes and self-defence.
Like other martial arts, Firkal evolved into a form of recreation among the Bhumij tribes. Over the years there have of course been changes in the movements—but it is in keeping with the ethnic culture of the Bhumijs. The modern form of Firkal reflects the courage and different phases of struggle of the "Bhumij Tribe" who survived by hunting and food gathering. "Nowadays, different "taals" or rhythmic rotations like "Bagh taal", "Birsa Munda taal" and "Pahalbani taal" are in vogue to denote specific forms of courage and struggle of the Bhumij.
Firkal, even though an endangered tribal art form, has received very little support or encouragement officially. With the number of families performing it dwindling, the art could very well have become extinct by now. The distressing part is that "Firkal" survives in few villages at Potka block in East Singhbhum district of Jharkand.
The efforts of Jharkhand Tribal Welfare and Research Institute is to encourage and popularize such vanishing dance forms of different tribes in Jharkhand.
The Baiga Scheduled tribe lives life under the dense forest of Dhindore district in Madhya Pradesh.This tribe performs the traditional dance which is called Baiga Karma dance.Men and women take part in this dance except four months of the rainy season. The instruments
Used for this are-Mande, Tumki, Flute and Chatkula.
Muria is the subtribe of Gond tribe. Muria tribe resides in Bastar division, which is the southern part of Chhattisgarh state. Muria tribe has three subpart- Raja Muria, Jhoria Muria and Ghotul Muria. Russel and Hiralal(1916) wrote in his famous work, “The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India”- Vol. 3, The Gonds of Bastar is divided into two groups- Muria and Madia. Muria etymology of 'Moore' Palash tree that is found in the plains of Bastar or "Mur" is the word that is the ''root''. According to another belief, ''Moor'' means ''aboriginal'' resident.
The dance team is belongs to Gotul Muria tribe. Gotul is the Youth Dormitory. "Ghotul" Youth Dormitory is the village community training center, which consists of all unmarried young girls and youth. In the Ghotul the boys called "Chelik" and the girls "Motiari". Gotul young girls gathered in the village each evening for entertainment and senior youth trained them with the various aspects of life is trained.
Muria dance team will perform three types of dances-
Mandri Nritya- Muria tribe performs the Mandri dance at marriage ceremony and for entertainment in Ghotul. In this dance, young boys hold the Mandar (drums) and dance in different steps and the girls dancing in the circle and sing songs.
Gedi Nritya- Gedi dance is the performed in the month of Sawan (July). It’s begeins from Hariyali Amavasya to full moon of the month. Gedi is made of green bamboo. Gedi’s height is about 5 to 6 feet. In this, the boys dance in a circle and they perform different steps through this bamboo sticks on the ground and the sounds of bamboo sticks comes while they dance.
Gavarmar Nritya- Gavar means Bison. In this dance the Muria dancers perform the scene of hunting. It is a great combination of theater and dance. Two person dances as Gavar and other two try to hunt that gavar. But one person wounded during the hunt and he becomes unconscious. The second person calls the priest (Sirha) to bring the divine. The priest (Sirha) prayer to deity for injured person is healthy. After the person healthy, the both person hunt the Gavar. All this perform in the stage with dance.
Paraja Nritya or Dhimsa Nritya by Koraput Govt Girls’ high school:-
Title of the song Dung Dunga Bajuli” Dhemsa is a popular dance of Koraput in the state of Odisha, it is a folk dance performed by boys and girls.It is named after the traditional instrument Dhumash.This present dance is performed during Pausha Parab to welcome Mahalaxmi.In this song they have expressed their gratitude to mahalaxmi and invite all the people irrespective of caste,creed and reliogion and social status to join and dance.
colourful tribe of Odisha ,the Gadabas mainly identify themselves for their unique Dhemsa dance and for Kerang sarees. The Dhemsa is ritual dance and generally performed during communal festivals like Dusshera , pusa purnima and Chaitra parav.Both men and women participate in dancing with the instruments like Dhol,tamak,khiridi and mahuri.
Garasiya Dance/ Bhill Chanjhi dance
Garasiya tribes of lives on Gujarat Rajasthan border. They enjoy their life through dance and music .Their dance is very colorful and performed during Holy. In this dance both male and female dance together with colorful dresses, ornaments . All the male dance by beating drums and women dance with Manjira.The dance has a strong rhythm. The dance to be performed by Garasiya tribes from Gujarat is known as Changi Nrutya.
The detail list of Garasiya dancers are as follows;
Rathwa Dance/Rathwani Geri Dance
Back Ground Note of Rathwa Dance Rathwa people lives in Chhota Udepur and Panchmahal.They are colorful people and a very fond of dance and music. They perform the dances in various occasion like holy,marriage,diwali.The team from Gujarat will perform Holy Dance (Rathwa ni Geri) where both male and female will perform accompanied by two funny jokers (Bhuriyo) with their traditional costumes,peakock feather on head. The whole body of the dancers are painted with rathwa painting. The dance is rhythmic and performed with the support of Dhol.
Name of the dance - Aadiwasi Pardhan Gond Gondi Dhemsa Nrutya
Godi Dhamsa Dance: This dance is performed at the time of Holi falguna Purnimaalso at the time of Chaitra, Bada deo puja and in the marriage ceremonies.They believe that the bada deo lives on the moha tree.they sing and dance to praise god.This particular dance is accompanied by sehnai and drums.
Shaila Gond Dance: This is a male dominated dance.This dance is a competitive dance. In this one group from one village goes to another and challenges another.
Maharashtra : Pardhan Gondi Nrity dance
This dance is performed at the time of Holi (Falgun pournima), also at the time of Bada deo puja in the month of Chaitra and in the marriage ceremonies . They beleive that the bada deo lives on the Moha tree .They sing and dance to praise the God.
This particular dance will be accompanied by the music on sanai and drums .
Aadivasi Gher Dance:
KAchi Ghodi Sehriya Nritya
A traditional dance performed by the Scheduled Tribe Irular community of Attappady, Palakkad Dist. It is a very vibrant dance form with unique traditional musical instruments like kukal (wind instrument), Porai (percussion instrument), Davil (percussion instrument) and Jalara (percussion instrument). This is performed by both male and female members of the community.The dance forms are conducted during birth, puberty ceremony, marriage, death ceremony and agricultural operations. They wear their traditional costumes and jewellery during performance. Children, youth, adults and aged persons of the community perform this dance form in their hamlets for various occasions. They also sing their traditional beautiful folk songs for the programme which is a mixture of Tamil and Malayalam that expresses the occupation and cultural practices of the tribe.
Kerala - Mulam Chenda, Mangalam Kali & Eruthu Kali, Kasargode District,
Mulam chenda is a traditional musical performance performed by the Scheduled Tribe Mavilan community of Kasargode Dist. Mulam Chenda is played in various pulse and tempo. Its significance and usage is in their life cycle as well as in other religious rituals. This musical instrument is made by the tribe with bamboos collected from the forest. These musical instruments are of two types viz, manichenda and week chenda. The rhythm beats of manichenda are controlled by the week chenda. Another traditional dance form performed by this community is the mangalamkali. It is a very vibrant dance form with unique traditional musical instruments. This is performed by both male and female members of the community. These dance forms are conducted during puberty ceremony, marriage, agricultural operations etc. They use their traditional dress and jewels like kallumala and pallathopi during their performance. Eruthukali is another traditional performance of the same community which was performed mainly during the shifting cultivation period called as punam krishi that commences in the Malayam month of Thulam pathu ( Oct- Nov). The song of the Mangalam kali are in Thullu language which depicts their day to day life and occupation of the Mavilan community.
Karnataka : Gorukana and Bhadrakali Kunitha dance
Name of the Tribal Community
Name of the Dance
Gorukana dance is performed by Soligas in March- April when rotti-habba is celebrated. A group of men dressed in leaf crowns and white dhotis dance around the central bonfire in the evening. The dance steps appeared to be a milder adaptation of ‘Chhau’ (Tribal dance from eastern part of India) not requiring as much of air lift but ample rhythmic control while bending the knees and twisting the hips maintaining complete balance. The vocal sounds of ‘Goru-ko” Goru-ko, Gorukana as a tribute to nature and seeking blessing to wade through the web of life in complete peace and harmony reverberate around. In this type of dance, the men would dance in a circle and women would be seated around them. As the performance goes on, the men and women would be allowed to choose the man/woman of their choice whom they can carry.
Bhadrakali Kunitha is performed by Jenu Kurubas during ‘Kunde Habba”. Mythology has it that Lord Ayyappa and Goddess Bhadrakali, betrayed the tribal people and in revenge they abuse them to get back their affection on the fourth Thursday of May.
Damami Kunita is a dance from specific to Siddis. This dance is usually performed during the Navrathri. More importantely it is performed also during the festivals celebrated to honour their ancestors and elders Damami, the musical instrument provides the background score to the dance
South Tamil Nadu:-
Toda Dance Toda dance of Tamilnadu-
In india Todas are found only in Nilgiri district of Tamilnadu state.the Todas are small community who live in the isolated nilgiori plateau.they live there prior to early nineteen century.The Toda dance is having one of the greatest histories about nilgiri district bof Tamilnadu
Kaniyan of Tamilnadu-
Most kaniyans are found in kanyakumari district but some are also distributed to Coimbatore district of tamilnadu, the kaniyans in the past used to dress colourful clothes and carried books.they wear sacted ash on their foreheads and other parts of their bodies,they wear easrrings and shell necklaces. The kaniyan have their own family deities as well as village deities and the dance is veryu special for them.
Gushadi Dance: This dance also known as Koya dance.
Lombada dance: This dance also called as Banjara Lombada dance in our India. - it originates from Rajasthan so named banzara and later on like this
Each Tribal Art form is unique,timeless and and is evocative of the Tribal Peoples’ intuition and imagination,prayers and penance,their thoughts and and beliefs,their hopes and inspirations,their myths and rituals, their alternative visions of life, livingbeing and becoming.
National Tribal Festival provided an excellent opportunity to try out a variety of tribal dishes from across the country which many of us probably never tasted .It reflected the tribal culinary skills and diversity that exists across India. Bamboo Chicken, Biryani Suddi Bhhat were the main attractions.
The Tribal people are the real custodian of medicinal plants. Another peculiarity of tribal life is their holistic herbal medicine. Having lived in Harmony with nature for centuries the tribes have identified various herbs for centuries which can heal a variety of diseases.
This Ministry is thankful to each and everybody who have put their efforts to make Vanaj a grand success.
Concept & Script:-
Dr. Hrushikesh Panda, Secretary
Mr. Ashok Pai, Joint Secretary
Mr. Manoj Kumar Pingua, Joint Secretary
Ms. Nivedita, Deputy Secretary
Special thanks to:-
Shri Jual Oram, Hon’ble Minister of Tribal Affairs
Shri Mansukhbhai Dhanjibhai Vasava, Hon’ble Minister of State
Creative Inputs by:-
Mr. Ashok Pai, Joint Secretary
Ms. Nivedita, Deputy Secretary
K. Chandra Sekar, Under Secretary
Ms. Suprava Dash, Media Consultant